Violent definition of masculinity - Sample Essay
This excerpt tells us that these members of Sara do not rape women for pleasure or for sec but they do this because some of them do not comply with their thoughts and behaviors. Lisa Vetten goes on to add that this act illustrates the unequal distribution of power in society. Men have more power than women and this is not that fault of men entirely but the blame goes to the society which has distributed these powers unequally (Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation).
Our hypothesis is further supported by the documentation provided by the U. S. department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. In the definition of rape BJS reports that rape is not merely an act of sex but is more than that as it is committed to satisfy non sexual needs as well. These non sexual needs are anger, power and control. The desire to dominate and control are the main reasons behind any rape. On the other hand, Rose George reports in an online newspaper Guardian that rape is for pleasure. The title of her article reads “’ they don’t see it as rape. They just see it as pleasure for them”. She gives references of many different cases of gang rapes.
According to one case the girl named Tamika received a phone call from her friend who was raped moment before. She had a group of boys over at her place just to ‘hang out’ and what happened later was a situation that reflected pleasure and sex as a motive. In another case, two girls were raped Emma and Lucy who are 16 years old at the time of testifying. They were raped by three boys. Yes not men but boys. They were followed by them and then taken to a park where they were forced to have sex with them. This incident again had nothing to do with controlling females. It was all about pleasure.
The boys just wanted to have fun and have sex. They were prepared for it for they even used condoms according to Lucy. Campus Gang Rape (1985) by Project on the Status of Education of Women, reported that one gang rape takes places every week on campuses (http://www. guardian. co. uk/weekend/story/0, 3605, 1230533, 00. html) FBI says that these gang rapes take place because of motivations dealing with groups and group pressures. These motivations are competition to be in the group, friendship, image, loyalty and the ability to be a part of the group by doing what the group does. This discussion is contrary to what is hypothesized.
It can be true because boys involved in gang rapes do not need reasons like power and control or anger to commit rape. They do it out of fun, peer pressure and pleasure. On limitation of this argument is that the concentration was on juveniles. Victims and offenders were all between the ages of 11years -19 years. The cases and data of gang rape was not dealing with mature individuals. On the contrary, Nicholas Groth in his book Men Who Rape, states that rape is an act of brutality and it is a behavioral act rather than a psychiatric condition. Rape destroys the sexuality of the victim.
In his study, he found out that offenders rarely combine pleasure and their crime together. For them what they committed was because they wanted to have full control of the person, wanted to have power etc. it ranged from disappointment to hatred. For a rapist pleasure is having control of the victim and authority in them. One of the rapists said “It gave me pleasure knowing that there was nothing that she could do” (http://www. interactivetheatre. org/resc/menwhorape. html). Even Nicholas Groth came up with three different types of rapists. They all had nothing to do with sexual gratification.
The first type was the power rapists who said that they did it because of satisfaction but their behavior did not complement their statement. They did not pay attention to what the woman was doing or her reactions. As he puts it “his aim is to capture, conquer and control his victim”. Then there is anger rape. When this rape takes place the offender gets involved in violent acts and brutality. He would beat the victim, will be harsh, tear up her clothes and then enter her. This rape reflects anger and rage from the offender’s side and this is proved by both his words and actions.
Sexual pleasure is not derived by beating the person. The last type of the rape is sadistic rape. This type of rape does not require the offender to be sexually aroused by the victim. Instead his need for power and aggression transform into his need to rape. The attacker will intentionally harm the victim and will enjoy the pain being inflicted on the victim by him/her. In sadistic rape the sexual areas of the victim are the main focus for the torture. These areas are usually badly injured. Satisfaction is derived from this act but from degrading, humiliating the victim.
Nicholas Groth in his study came up with these three types and reached a conclusion that men rape because of power and control and no other reason. It is in support of our hypothesis. Men rape because of gaining power and control. In addition to this, common sense tells us that rape cannot be for sexual pleasure as the attacker after completing his task moves on to his next victim. If it would be for pleasure and gratification then it would end there and it won’t involve so much violence and physical abuse. As mentioned before, male rape also occurs and is as serious as a rape of a female.
Less is known about this because not many makes come forward with their complaints. Male rape is also associated with our assumption that power and control are the underlining factors for rape. Marcia Cohen and Sherrie H. McKenna in their article, Rape: Psychology, Prevention and Impact, state that rape in prisons is an action of power and has nothing to do with sexual activity. Again this act deals with fear, brutality and power. The persons who commit such acts are those convict who are in prison for acts of violence. The article furthers states a study made by Alan J. Davis of the district attorney’s office in Philadelphia (1968).
The study also concluded that homosexual sex was not out of sexual arousal or needs because masturbation was easier than having sex with a male. Prison rape is “violent definition of masculinity” (http://www. yale. edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/3/81. 03. 06. x. html) According to a study in 2002, one in every eight rape victims was a male. Male rapes not only take place in prisons but they can happen anywhere and at anytime. They are as degrading as a rape of a female in fact even worse.
Many studies have been conducted and all sum up to one conclusion that male rape is all about control and power. When a male rapes another male it deprives respect and dignity from the victim. It is a way of showing “who is the boss” and thus using authority and power. This discussion also supports the hypothesis that control and power are the underlining factors for committing rape. Taken together, the results from the above discussions indicate that rape is an act of violence, which occur because of control and to get power. It has nothing to do with sexual pleasures.
The only pleasure that the rapist gets is from humiliating the victims and degrading them. When the victim feels helpless and terrified the rapist feel satisfied. All the discussion made by Nicholas Groth, University of Oklahoma, Mesa Community College, Kids Health Organization, Lisa Vetten, Marcia Cohen and Sherrie H. McKenna, leads to the fact that men rape because of the lust to gain control and power. To be authoritative and let the others feel that they are way superior to them. Rose George, on the other hand, supported that rape happens because of pleasure.
Her findings were based on gang rapes done by boys. The government has come up with strict policies to control the rate of rape and the frequency of it. According to the results these measures are working but then as mentioned not all rape cases are reported so these facts about decline in rape rates can be wrong. Apart from the government doing something, the people should also step forward and make a difference. Rape awareness is the first thing that can be done. Educating the general public, children and teens about rape is very important.
Then there are some organizations that are working towards educating and mentoring males so that they can stop themselves from committing this crime. More of such activities should take place. Male and females should be educated and mentored in order to stop this violent crime. Regular psychological treatments, tests and visits to psychiatrists can also be helpful. Prison rape is something, which is not being controlled. One thing that may be done is to separate the violent and dangerous criminals from the less dangerous ones.
This will reduce some of the prison rape rates. The guards should also go through therapy so that they do not act brutally and they do not contribute towards this horrendous act.
George Rose. They don’t see it as rape. They just see it as pleasure for them (June 5 2004). In the Guardian. http://www. guardian. co. uk/weekend/story/0,3605,1230533,00. html Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Nicholas Groth (n. d. ). Men Who Rape http://www. interactivetheatre. org/resc/menwhorape. html Retrieved, February 17, 2007 National Crime Victimization Survey (2005).
In U. S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cv05. pdf Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Rape Crisis Online – RCVCC http://www. rapecrisisonline. com/statistics. htm Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Rape – Sexual Assault. U. S. Department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/ovc/publications/infores/clergy/rape. htm Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Rape. In Teens Health. http://kidshealth. org/teen/your_mind/problems/rape_what_to_do. html Retrieved, February 17, 2007
Statistics | Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network http://www. rainn. org/statistics/index. html Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Sexual Assault. In Mesa Community College Document. http://www. mc. maricopa. edu/dept/d52/ajs/vaw/sexualassault. htm Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Vetten, Lisa. Why do men rape? In Gender. http://www. cosatu. org. za/shop/shop0901/shop0901-08. html Retrieved, February 17, 2007 Why do men rape? In The University of Oklahoma, Women’s Outreach Center. http://www. ou. edu/womensoc/why-do-men-rape. htm Retrieved, February 17, 2007