# The helicopter investigation - Sample Essay

In order to be able to observe my results to trace patterns and correlations through the data, I have created a table, which shows the length of the helicopters wingspan, and also the results for each wingspan, which was taken individually three times. These results are yet again to 2 decimal places to achieve a more precise range of results, and an average is used to calculate the average of all the three attempts. Wing span length TestMy results show major anomalous result through Test 1 & 2, however throughout the averages this becomes very minor and proves that overall it could have been a mistake with the stopwatch or the person conducting it. Conclusion To conclude my data from my investigation, I can interpret that my prediction was overall correct.

This was as a result of my results showing a distinct pattern, where a constant speed is shown, due to the length of the wingspan decreasing in proportion. The graphs illustrated display a steady increase in speeds between the upper wingspans (9cm to 6cm), then wing span 5cm shows a steeper gradient, which means there has been an increase in speed, but may seem misleading as it looks like there has been a quick deceleration in my graph, yet the time differences are the sack of a few milliseconds in comparison to the earlier results where there is about 25 milliseconds different in increased speed.

My suggestions is that the increase in speed is due to the lower wingspans ranging from 4 cm to 2cm having a much higher terminal velocity, which is a result of the paper helicopter that is smaller being much more compact and a more denser object then the helicopter with a longer wingspan this causes it to have a higher maximum speed. By using the Speed formula, I can conclude that a helicopter with a wingspan of 9cm has a speed of 1. 26 by using the formula Speed= distance/ time (2. 98/2.28), this compares to the smallest wingspan, which was 2cm having a speed of 3,63(2. 98/0. 82) that ends up being 2 mph faster!

I believe this is a result of the decrease in wingspan size my helicopter has more than doubled the speed from the starting length of 9cm. To substantiate this point furthermore, the graph shows that each different wingspan lands quicker than the one before it, there is a positive correlation that as the wing span decreases the speed increases, which overall aids my prediction even further.

Since I predicted my helicopter’s wingspan decreases less air resistance will be needed to push against the gravitational force, which is forcing my helicopter to gradually fall. Therefore, the accelerating force, the gravity would be greater then the drag force, otherwise known as air resistance, and because the forces are unbalanced there would be greater acceleration, also bearing in mind that Newton calculated that everything has a mass of 10 m/s. So because of the unbalanced forces and the added mass of 10 m/s the helicopter with fewer wingspans should and has shown from my results to land much quicker.

The main reason for this is that the gravitational force is greater than the resistance force. Evaluation Overall, my investigation was successful because the results, which were gathered very precise, the method in which I would obtain results was also very accurate since it was a very easy guide to follow and the results gained helped to further prove my prediction correct and supplementary giving me a firm and transparent knowledge of forces in motion.

The overall accuracy of my results was good since it allowed me to illustrate a very clear graph with a relatively easy line of best fit since the results followed a positive correlation making the outcome reliable, their were not many anomalous results but some did occur throughout the first two tests, which were very considerably out of line. I believe these results were overall human error since they ended up following the average correlation in the end.

For next time, I would have considered taking more trials such as five instead of three to ensure that an even higher reliability in results would be gathered. Nevertheless, my final three results from wingspan 4cm to 2cm were anomalous at the time, not because they weren’t increasing in speed, but because they seemed grouped together, which I came to a reasoning for, which was that they had met there overall terminal velocity.

To improve upon my investigation, I would perhaps begin to introduce different variables such as different sized helicopters in general to see if they would have made an overall difference in the results or would have tried differing the size of the paper clips or the width of the wings, or even make different cuts into the wings as wind breakers, which would allow me to discover new logic behind the aerodynamics of a helicopter and how shape affects the speed.

The other variable in my prior investigation, mass of the helicopter might have been a more reasonable choice since it was much less predictable and overall the outcome of this investigation was inevitable. To carry out this investigation, I would consider attaching extra mass by adding a new paper clip each time, as a I know paper clips weigh 0. 25g, If I was to do the experiment ten times I would have added a total mass of 2. 5g, which I think would make a considerable effect in the rate at which my helicopter would descend, but to drop this from the ceiling would not be significant enough and a much higher height would have to be used.

It wouldn’t be very sensible to stand on a roof and drop this since it would be affected by other variables outside, and instead using the stairs would be a much greater idea. To develop my current experiment for next time, I would consider dropping it from the ceiling therefore I wouldn’t have to hold the metre stick each time and it would have ended up being a much fairer trial since the height of the ceiling would never change and the metre stick might have gradually differed each time. Nevertheless, the differences would not have been drastic and would not have caused even milliseconds of difference.