Research methods in the media industry - Sample Essay
There’s a whole variety of reasons why research is undertaken in the media industry and there’s also a number of different ways to carry out research to acquire the different forms of information required. This report will be discussing the following in detail audience research, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, primary research and secondary research lastly consumer awareness.
Why we research in the media industry? As I said before research is undertaken for a variety of reasons. It might be so the director knows what they possibility may need to adjust in their production based on what it’s about, and this is known as content analysis where the producer and the director will research the subject matter to gather information to include into the final production.
In addition research might also be undertaken be aware of legal restrictions for instance copyright infringement simply when you want to use the same ideas or the same content you will require written consent from the person who originally invented or owns the idea, in most cases copyright infringement doesn’t protect the underlying ideas, it also doesn’t protect facts. For instance, copyright doesn’t stop or limit you from expressing in your own words thoughts and facts that originate in any sources you read or view however you must give appropriate credit to the sources in which they originated from.
For instance, there have been several, Alien based films, however only one E. T. Audience research Media products all have a target audience which could be defined by several factors, including age, gender as well as demographics. Whether it’s a chat show, daily newspaper, film or any other media form, each has a clear target audience. You must beware that audiences are not the same besides the audience research tells the producer what most applies to the audience how they can take advantage of what applies to the audience.
They may watch previously released films/programmes and find out if they were successful at appealing to that audience. On the other hand they can observe a group viewing of a series premiere to see the group’s reaction and see if they’ve met their expectations and getting a calculation from the observation to see if they need to make some alterations to the production. Additionally Producers may also use BARB to find out further details about their selected audience what exactly is appealing to them after that discus features that will be in the production. Qualitative research methods
Qualitative methods are better for finding more descriptive data and opinions because you interact with the research which lets you to explain any misunderstood questions and to go into further detail meaning you get a more factual answer. Methods that are categories under qualitative research range from case studies, interviews, diary analysis and focus groups. For instance the producers of a film will pick out a group which has the profile of their target audience, and will show them the film. This can be done both pre and post release if the film is not performing as well as predicted.
The producer could then use the focus group’s response to alter or completely rethink, or even go ahead and take nothing on board and confirm the look and content of the film. Quantitative research methods Quantitative research mainly is numerical data. It could be used by producers of a film or by the company which is marketing it. UK based TV company’s use the( Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board) BARB for short to analyse viewing ratings, plus radio station use ( Radio Joint Audience Research Limited) short for RAJAR will view the listening numbers.
Qualitative and quantitative methods are constantly used together in order to research the habits and preference of the target audience. In order to identify the profile of the audience, producers may look at current demographic models has on age or gender, or they may try to create a new audience for their film. Creating a new audience is much harder to accomplish additionally a producer may have to come up with a film which is appealing to those that feel there’s a gap in the industry, or gather a group of individuals together who all desire a possible reinvasion in the market.
Finally when a target audience has been recognized, the film producer will then target the audience by using a series of carefully organised ad campaigns. The films could be promoted in newspapers that the target audience reads, also online sites which are frequently visited by the target audience, or show an ad when you’re guaranteed the most viewers such as champion’s league games or X factor episodes. Primary research methods Primary research is any research that’s done by an individual first hand.
There’s a wide range of techniques for primary research from focus groups, interviews, observations and questionnaires, all come under as primary since questions are being asked directly this is research that is done first hand. Primary research is more suitable for finding out detailed information since you wouldn’t have to rely on anyone else’s results to be correct since the individual would have gathered the necessary information themselves so they know everything was done exactly how they wanted so the information is reliable.
Primary research can come in the categories of both qualitative and quantitative research since there’s a variety of ways to conduct this research. Detailed look at a few the primary research techniques Questionnaires are regularly used by researchers when they need to gather essential information from a number of people targeting certain groups by age, ethnicity, and gender even social class. There practically surveys that can be sent on the internet in the post or hand out person to person.
It’s easy to analyse questionnaires since its just basically gathering numbers, in addition it’s a much cheaper but sometimes a more time consuming process to gather information. Then again on the down side questionnaires aren’t able to get hold of, detailed information since they typically have closed questions yes or no type or the listed options provided in questionnaire. Another potential problem with questionnaire is that the individual taking part in the questionnaire may get the wrong end of the stick about a particular question or just not understand completely.
For that reason the individual organising the questionnaire may possibly not get the right results from the questionnaire. Possible way to evade this you could do a pilot study to examine the questionnaire and make any necessary alterations after. Interview: interviews can be divided into three areas structured, semi structured, unstructured interviews. Structured: Structured interviews stick to a specific guideline with set questions sticking to the ones written. Semi structured: Semi structured interviews have some questions however questions can be added on the spot to go into more detail with the questions.
Unstructured: lastly unstructured interviews have no questions set. The interviewer will bring up a topic with some questions in their head, similar to a casual conversation than anything. Interviews are mainly qualitative forms of research this method of research can very fruitful to the researcher since you are capable of going into more detail and thus gather further information for your research. On the other hand, the questions asked in an interview may be bias if the interviewer has their personal biased viewpoint placing their opinion in the questions.
This may be done by the interviewer if they ask leading questions for instance. Tell us the reason why you like this film, instead of do you like the film. Secondary research methods Secondary research is gathered information that was done by someone else and made accessible to the public. For instance through archives, the internet, and other media outlets such as the news all of these come under secondary data since the information that you receive from these sources is information that the individual never gathered themselves.
Potentially secondary research maybe unreliable option of researching since the individual can’t be sure that everything written is accurate since they never carried out the research themselves and they can’t test it and get the same results. On the plus side secondary research is significantly cheaper and faster process to use since the information has been completed for you already by someone else. Detailed look at a few the secondary research techniques The most common practice of secondary research done nowhere days is on the internet to think not too long ago we spent while copy the information on a copy machine.
With the vast amount of online resources, traditional means of research done by books seem out dated. It’s now common for a student to complete an essay without opening a single book. However there are always pros and cons with any new technology. Some people like to say there’s a skill involved in finding a book in the library and searching. An Individual can ignore the entire topic that was read thoroughly for pertinent information. This may lead to more people getting the wrong end of the stick and not understanding the subject matter.
But it’s a free vast amount of information; free for use for anybody much easier and less process, as well as getting qualitative information and opinions including polls, surveys, are simpler with the internet, assuming you’re aware of where you’re getting your information from. That could lead to a con since it’s not wise to use information from an unaccredited source, not from opinion based sites a lot of these sites around that look creditable but are far from it Consumer awareness.
Consumer awareness is the understanding that a consumer is knows his or her legal rights and duties. It’s essential for a consumer to stick to these rights. It’s implemented for the protection of the consumer, so the consumer is not exploited. But the producers may look into consumer awareness to discover if their ad campaign successful or if it’s unsuccessful. NRS The National Readership Survey NRS for short is provides the most dependable and respected audience research in operation for the advertising sector in the UK.
The NRS reports on over 250 of the UK’s mainstream newspapers and magazines, you get a sense of the size and nature of the audiences they attract. In this always evolving digital age the NRS still create partnerships with the leading digital data sources providing a clearer vision of the combined total audience future. This is a great source for gathering information since data posted on this site are available without subscription. Already prepared for producers and so on only thing to do now is compare. Company Structure.
NRS Ltd is regulated and for the most part funded by three shareholders (IPA) The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (NPA) The Newspaper Publishers Association (PPA) The Periodical Publishers Association Why are the surveys so important? The way surveys are carried out affects the estimations it produces. Particularly for media measurement surveys NRS randomly selects individual aged 15+ in the UK. Only the chosen individuals may be interviewed to ensure that the surveys are clear and representative.
The demographic characteristics won’t have the same reading habits according to their lifestyle and availability. It’s better for NRS to use random testing to reduce the favouritism towards people who are available for interview than others. The Interviews Structure A nonstop survey, all 12 months of the year, 7 days a week Total number: around 36,000 interviews a year with adults aged 15+ per year A random sample: interviews only conducted at randomly selected addresses with randomly selected individuals The average time for an hour takes half an hour.