Information System - Sample Essay

The research is aimed at determining the roles and the impacts of Information Systems in Quality Assurance as well as establishing the link between the two. It also establishes the ways in which the two work hand in hand to ensure quality control for delivery of high quality products and services for the entire organizational success. The research determines this fact by establishing how businesses benefit from incorporating Information Systems in Quality Assurance process. The research uses qualitative analysis and uses general organizational Quality Assurance processes as the subject in the research and a reflection of quality control success. Secondary data is used to analyze pre-existing conditions and collect information that has been collected in previous studies to incorporate to the primary data collected.

Collectively the two sets of data give a comprehensive study that depicts the truth of the roles and the impacts of quality assurance in quality assurance. The study collects its data through interviews and questionnaires, which are later analyzed in graphs that show the results in statistics and figures that allow the results to be easily interpreted. The research has been structured in three parts, where each has a different objective that has been analyzed and they are collectively used to form a comprehensive analysis of the topic. The first part establishes the effectiveness of sales promotion in enhancing customer awareness. The study establishes various ways in which quality assurance can be improved by integration of Information system in the process to meet the growth objectives of a business. The study is completed by giving recommendations on the topic.

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In the present world, information systems have become the backbone of almost every organizational activity, globally (Jackowski, 2006, p. 103). As a matter of fact, organizational departments in almost every sector; that is education, finance, marketing, sales, government, manufacturing and health care among others have embraced the use of Information Systems (IS) especially in the verge of internet connectivity and computer literacy (Sprague, 2008,p.226). Information system refers to the software’s and the hardware’s that reliably and effectively supports data demanding application through a process of managing and processing information. In other words, an information system is a database, which is computerized and technically designed to create, accept, manage, control and process information (Deng & Chi, 2012, p.98).

Presently, activities have been automated to fit the high demand in the markets and to serve as many clients as an organization can. For instance, Banks have embraced the use of information systems to create an efficient flow of processes and to increase the number of the served clients. In addition, when we are travelling, it is evident that a series of digital operations are conducted to determine the next flights and to determine the availability of hotels. All these activities have been possible due to the availability of the interconnected information systems that increase speed and enhance efficiency (Watson, 2014, p. 234).

On the other hand, quality assurance is a company oriented approach that is process centered to ensure that a particular organization or company delivers the best services or products to its current and the potential customers (Zhao & Xia, 2014, p. 124). Most importantly, quality assurance (QA) in an organization comprises of quality control as well as the testing processes that ensure the management team delivers what was planned. The two terms; that is quality assurance and quality control are used interchangeably although in most cases quality assurance (QA) focuses on improving the results rather than materializing on the results only. Moreover, Quality Assurance (QA) is a systematic endeavor and has a process that is always followed to ensure a company’s results are desirable (Lowry et al., 2013, p. 998).

According to Jajodia (2008), the use of information systems in quality assurance is a valued step in the process as it enhances quality and the organization’s management team can predict successful end outcomes. As matter of fact, information systems in quality control are concerned with how well the software artifacts employed match with the quality assurance process.

Research aim

The research aim is to explore and establish the role and impact of (IS) information system on the quality assurance process (QA system), as well as investigating the relation between the information system (IS) and the quality assurance system (QA). Rather, the aim of the study is to determine the significance and the role of Information systems in the dawn of Quality assurance in almost all organizational sectors. Evidently, the research will seek to uncover the truth regarding how companies and other organizations in the world adopt the two for efficient and smooth running of their institutional operations. Finally, the research will reach to determine the benefits that accrue as a result of incorporating information system knowledge in t quality assurance in diverse local, regional and multinational corporations.

Research Objectives and Research Questions

As noted above, the primary objective of the study is to explore and establish the role and impact of (IS) information system on the quality assurance process (QA system), as well as investigating the relation between the information system (IS) and the quality assurance system (QA). The subsequent information presents the objectives and research questions of the study.
Research objectives

To amplify the understanding of the concept Information systems, its role and its impact on quality assurance (QA)
To investigate the positive aspects linked with information system when incorporated in quality assurance process in diverse organizational endeavors.
To determine the role and impacts of information system and quality assurance in different organizational capacities.
To investigate the various benefits that are associated with information system in the threshold of Quality assurance.
To establish the relation between the information system (IS) and the quality assurance system (QA)

1.5 Hypothesis

The research is based on the following hypothesis;
Information system is very important in all processes of organizational quality assurance.
The execution of quality assurance in the absence of information systems especially in the internet era leads to poor performance hence poor end results.
The concept of Quality assurance has greatly evolved in the internet age and information systems have played a major role in substantiating all quality assurance processes
Information system application in quality assurance is the backbone and the foundation for the success realized by the modern corporations.
With increased technological advancement and computer literacy, the application of information systems in quality assurance result to profit augmentation and the realization
Research questions
What is the importance or significance Incorporating information system in quality assurance process?
What can be done to improve the current strategies information system and its link with Quality assurance?
What major aspects contribute towards effective blending of Information systems especially in the current technological world?
What is the role of information system in quality assurance?
What is the relationship between Information system and quality assurance.

Research Rationale

Information system (IS) being one of the strategies that organizations employ in getting in-touch with the best Quality Assurance (QA) processes, the current changes in technology and the advancements in development of software’s makes Information system to be of significance in almost all organizational endeavors (Piattini, 2010, p. 132). However, much concentration has been put in respect to the advantages that organizations gain with their overall performance. The issue of changing with the changing developments in the world of software and information system advancements has been sidelined when addressing the advantages and effects of the systems in Quality assurance (QA). Organizational awareness in this case refers to the concept of providing various communication activities with the institutional performance and knowledge with respect to the available products or services.

Building a company’s confidence in producing the best products and offering quality services is an issue of significant importance in organizational operations simply because it offers an opportunity for making better goods and services. Therefore, the introduction of information systems in Quality assurance (QA) systems as well as changing the systems with the latest advancements is an important activity that ought to yield significant results of which will be discovered through this study (Singh, 2007, p. 233). This helps an organization to create strong relationship with customers, simply because it never becomes obsolete.

Once all the stakeholders in an organization ranging from the subordinate staff to the management team are aware of the addition of information systems into the quality assurance process, they normally get connected to it in some way and work hard to avoid individual blames from their seniors. Positive connection is in most cases fostered by the organization where it continues engaging in training and mentoring activities after a certain period with the aim of making sure that employees do not forget about the organizational goals and objectives. Understanding more about the roles and the impacts of information systems in quality assurance on the organizational performance will be of great importance in promoting managerial activities as well as streamlining the production process and promoting all aspects of managerial decision-making.

Literature review

In the present world, information systems have become the backbone of almost every organizational activity, globally (Jackowski, 2006, p. 103). As a matter of fact, organizational departments in almost every sector; that is education, finance, marketing, sales, government, manufacturing and health care among others have embraced the use of Information Systems (IS) especially in the verge of internet connectivity and computer literacy (Sprague, 2008,p.226). Information system refers to the software’s and the hardware’s that reliably and effectively supports data demanding application through a process of managing and processing information. In other words, an information system is a database, which is computerized and technically designed to create, accept, manage, control and process information (Deng & Chi, 2012, p.98).

Information system refers to the composition of the people and computers used to process information and interpret them. The resultant information is aimed to support management, operations and in decision making. The 1980s pyramid of systems shows the hierarchy of the organization. They include; transaction processing system, management information systems, decision support system and the executive systems at the top. As the time goes, coupled with technological changes experienced, new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which do not fit the original pyramid model. There has been an increase of use of the information systems by various companies for the basis of increasing productivity, production of quality products, providing quality services, creating customer confidence and making timely decisions.

As a result, information system has become the prime reason for the success and failure of the company to compete in competitive business environment. This therefore shows the great impact of information system on business operation in today’s world. It is for this reason that designing an information system of high quality is important so that organization can compete successfully in the global market as well as work towards assessing the needs of individuals, groups and organizations as part of the quality assurance process.. The experts should understand the business operation of a company before they can design a comprehensive system, because every business environment is likely to be different.

In the process of learning the operation of a given company, an expert is expected to design a business profile and consider a number of business models. Where a business profile covers company ownership, structure and management, its customers and suppliers. The business model on the other end forms a brick-and-mortar type, a virtual store, and so on. Business process therefore, explains a certain process, activity and the results expected.

Quality Assurance refers to a planned system of review procedures conducted by personnel not directly involved in the inventory development process. The reviews are preferably done by an independent third party upon finalized inventory following the implementations of the quality control procedures. The process of the reviews involves verifying if data quality objectives were met, ensuring that the inventory represents the best possible estimates of business effluents and intakes given the latest state of scientific knowledge and data available and support the effectiveness of the Quality Control programme.

While the Quality Control refers to the activities that include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and the use standardized procedures for the emission calculations, measurements, estimating uncertainties, archiving information and reporting (Jackowski, 2006, p. 103). The Quality Accuracy system is only part of the inventory agencies do not have unlimited resources. Quality control requirements, improved accuracy and reduced uncertainty need to be balanced against requirements for timeliness and cost effectiveness.

Presently, activities have been automated to fit the high demand in the markets and to serve as many clients as an organization can. For instance, Banks have embraced the use of information systems to create an efficient flow of processes and to increase the number of the served clients. In addition, when we are travelling, it is evident that a series of digital operations are conducted to determine the next flights and to determine the availability of hotels. All these activities have been possible due to the availability of the interconnected information systems that increase speed and enhance efficiency (Watson, 2014, p. 234).

On the other hand, quality assurance is a company-oriented approach that is process centered to ensure that a particular organization or company delivers the best services or products to its current and the potential customers (Zhao & Xia, 2014, p. 124). In other words, Quality Assurance is any systematic process of checking to see whether a product or service being developed is meeting specified requirements also refers to the processes and procedures that systematically monitor different aspects of a service, process or facility to detect, correct and ensure that quality standards are being met.

Most importantly, quality assurance (QA) in an organization comprises of quality control as well as the testing processes that ensure the management team delivers what was planned. The two terms; that is quality assurance and quality control are used interchangeably although in most cases quality assurance (QA) focuses on improving the results rather than materializing on the results only. Moreover, Quality Assurance (QA) is a systematic endeavor and has a process that is always followed to ensure a company’s results are desirable (Lowry et al., 2013, p. 998).
According to Jajodia (2008), the use of information systems in quality assurance is a valued step in the process as it enhances quality and the organization’s management team can predict successful end outcomes. As matter of fact, information systems in quality control are concerned with how well the software artifacts employed match with the quality assurance process.

Information system (IS) being one of the strategies that organizations employ in getting in-touch with the best Quality Assurance (QA) processes, the current chages in technology and the advancements in development of software’s makes Information system to be of significance in almost all organizational endeavors (Piattini, 2010, p. 132). However, much concentration has been put in respect to the advantages that organizations gain with their overall performance. Organizational awareness in this case refers to the concept of providing various communication activities with the institutional performance and knowledge with respect to the available products or services (Deng & Chi, 2012, p.294).

Building a company’s confidence in producing the best products and offering quality services is an issue of significant importance in organizational operations simply because it offers an opportunity for making better goods and services. Therefore, the introduction of information systems in Quality assurance (QA) systems as well as changing the systems with the latest advancements is an important activity that ought to yield significant results of which will be discovered through this study (Singh, 2007, p. 233). This helps an organization to create strong relationship with customers, simply because it never becomes obsolete.

Once all the stakeholders in an organization ranging from the subordinate staff to the management team are aware of the addition of information systems into the quality assurance process, they normally get connected to it in some way and work hard to avoid individual blames from their seniors (Jackowski, 2006, p. 103). Positive connection is in most cases fostered by the organization where it continues engaging in training and mentoring activities after a certain period with the aim of making sure that employees do not forget about the organizational goals and objectives. Understanding more about the roles and the impacts of information systems in quality assurance on the organizational performance will be of great importance in promoting managerial activities as well as streamlining the production process and promoting all aspects of managerial decision-making.

Ideally, information system commonly abbreviated IS refers to collection of both human and technical resources in a view to providing proper storage, distribution communication and computing all or some parts of the important information that is required by an enterprise for proper functioning (Briggs, 2014, p.110). Information system is a very vital element for the success of any business especially with the current technological changes. Information system is responsible for data processing within an enterprise. Information systems assist in analyzing and organizing huge data that in turn helps an enterprise effectively usual problem and challenges that directly relate and are relevant to the enterprise in question.

The application of information system in computing data is gaining much acceptance especially in this era whereby many organizations are dealing with extremely huge data that need proper organization in the database (Cecez-Kecmanovic, Kautz & Abrahall, 2014, p. 570). The software that are used in information system basically organizes analyses and then converts raw data to useful information that is used by the management for decision making within an organization. Information system software exists as both specialized and general. The general are design to perform varied types of analysis whereas the specific information system software is design to perform specific analysis with an organization. For instance, geographic information system and enterprise information system perform specific and different analyses as per the organizations requirements.

An information system consists if information system components that enhances and sustains the operation of the software to achieve the organizations goals. For example, it contains the hardware that are important at enhancing data input and output after analysis for the purpose of decision making (Weiyin et all., 2011, p. 240). Then the network, which is the heart of information system works by connecting different people within the organization that are using same information system. This enables different users to access information from the system even when they are far or working at different places. Then last is the procedure, a component of information system that gives guidelines and procedures followed when using a specific system. The specific information needed to answer or solve a specific problem within the organization will employ a specific but relevant procedure.

There exist different types of information system kin the organization based on where they are used in relation to the heretical organization of a given enterprise. For instance, the middle and senior managers normally use management information system and decision support systems to effectively execute their duties for the success of an organization (Hui & Yue, 2012, p. 120). On the other hand, directors use the executive information system since they usually make key decision s upon which the success of an enterprise is entirely based. The subordinates use transaction information system because their activities revolve around carrying out transaction on behalf of the organization
The role of information system in quality assurance process

All organization are mandated to establish control and monitor quality assurances and quality control systems to ensure that set standards are implemented with a view to providing client s with quality goods and services that fully satisfy client needs (Seidel, Recker & vom Brocke, 2013, p. 1275). Quality assurance and quality control are used concurrently and entails all attempts that focus on granting confidence that quality needs and expectation of the enterprises clients are fulfilled. To achieve this, quality systems should be set in line with business objectives .the top managers is very critical at establishing the workability and the efficiency of quality assurance through making informed decisions based on the information derived from raw data that is processed by information system software within an organization.

Effective quality assurance controls are concerned with putting in place activities and techniques that ensure that customer expectation are met besides fulfilling the business core motives of profit maximization. Jun, H, & King, W 2008, p. 312). Therefore, the quality assurance strategies suggested by the top managers should not be economically detrimental to the enterprise operation. These calls for selection of strategies whose implementation requires readily available inputs that cost effective and are capable of yielding highly. It is worth noting that establishing a relevant Information System within an organization is a basic foundation in building a working Quality Assurance process, and helps develop deeper insights into its in all aspects related to quality delivery and meeting of customers and stakeholders needs.

Quality assurance in any organization is charged to quality assurance departments whose tasks requires provision of efficient, effective and reliable quality assurance systems and procedures to all operational units within the enterprise. The department of quality assurance in organizations is controlled and operated by highly qualified a person who poses high interpersonal skills.

According to Jackowski (103), dedication of quality assurance department to skilled personnel, the first and a very key step to fulfilling customers needs with respect to good and services offered by the enterprise. In fact, the information system converts the raw data to useful information that is used by the decision makers especially from the quality department. Upon collecting and analyses of information emphasize is made to various units of the organization to keen watch of the quality concerns of the customers and respond to their needs.

Due to its ability to stores data with enhancement from its various components, information system is critical at keeping at database that contains the policies and mechanism set in place by the management as a measure to controlling quality matters within an organization. This for instance may include the working instructions, guidelines and approaches to production and as a basic inclusion in the production endeavors, it assists in establishing the means by which quality assurance can be automated.

The ability of quality documents in an organization is an indicator of the management’s efforts towards quality achievement and sustenance (Jackowski, 2006, p. 103). These documents and policies also ensure that all organization workers are up to date within the organization goals as far as quality delivery is concerned. Keeping an organized database of quality requirements is a milestone towards attainment of requirement quality standards and at the same times remaining competitive in business.

In order for the organization to offer high quality and maintain its business motives of profit maximization, information system has a great role to play. In satisfying customers, information system is applied to create new goods and services delivery with a view to developing a new markets approach and customers satisfaction through automation to reduce cost and times waste especially on carrying out transactions. For efficiency in service delivery, information system offers an approach for combining innovations and internet to boost productivity and quality sustenance (Mastrogiacomo, Missonier & Bonazzi, 2014, p. 60). In addition, keeping all workers especially those in quality department linked with those in production section through internet aided computers facilities quick response to quality issues rapid therefore maintaining the customers trust with respect to quality delivery.

Most importantly, information system is a very vital tool in quality maintenance sustenance within an organization through storage of employee’s personal profile giving a clear description of their qualifications, responsibilities that can be used by the management in conducting quality assessment to identify the specific employees responsible for a given task that has quality concerns (Jackowski, 2006, p. 198). In case of any mishandling, the roots cause can be traced and there for impose stricter measures for quality maintenance.

The primary merit of information systems is their ability to provide a user with the information needed to do any kind of task effectively and efficiently. The workflow towards the system of operation becomes easier to work on. Moreover, Information systems identify techniques, which accelerate the performance of all quality assurance activities in an organization .This facilitates on how efficiency and effective a task can be accomplished within a short duration of time but at the same time minding quality. In fact, an accrued and complicated task to a user is simplified once Information System (IS) is applied .

Information systems are required by organizations to track, keep, manipulate and convey information to the appropriate people hence satisfying the requirements of quality assurance teams in an organization hence fastening the way an organization operates. In addition, information system offers a platform for an organization to track any fraud events within its environment hence encouraging transparency its entire endeavor (Jackowski, 2006, p. 213). In places where a massive and crude data needs a large capacity of storage, an information system plays a major role in prompting for efficiency in the best way possible. It is also through the incorporation of Information System in quality assurance that organizations are able to streamline and effect their operations into a cohesive functioning unit. It can assist in tracing some information in an organization for obtaining the lost or forged data.

In broad spectrum, Information Systems support business decision-making by providing management with critical data hence prompting the managers and directors to work towards delivering quality products and services and developing the basic understanding of how Quality Assurance can be enhanced through automation. (Mora et al., 2003).

Inherently, Information System (IS) serves to enhance the organization’s communication, reduce human labor, support short- and long-term business goals and distribute complex or take action thus acquiring quality end results. The level of management decision making is normally, supported by information system a successful organization irrespective of its size, shape and employee and it is shaped by the level of Information system integration in an organization Quality Assurance process. .It also assists in developing organizational strategies, goals as well the objectives.

Furthermore, Information System (IS) monitors strategic performance of the organization and its overall direction in the political, economy and competitive business environment. It provide information in form of reports and displays to the managers and business professional that enforce day –to-day decision-making needs (Mora et al., 2003). Normally information has been specified in advance to meet expectations on operational and tactical levels of an organization.

Information systems (IS) have importantly transformed the way the quality assurance practices are undertaken in different organizations. According to Mora et al., (2003), it is hard to find an organization that does not apply technology, automation or information system to run its operational and transaction processes.

As a matter of fact, most types of information systems used in business organizations are Electronic and mobile commerce systems, Management information systems and Decision support systems and in the quality assurance process, they enhance speed and consistency. Once automation takes over some the burden of the more mundane and routine tasks, the urgent speed increases productivity. Nevertheless, Computer information systems are programmed to have wonderful ability to curb duplicates, point out inconsistencies and combine data together to make it more manageable and plan-able (Mora et al., 2003). This enlightens the ability and capability for higher degrees of accuracy and efficiency hence delivering quality goods and services that meet customer expectations.

Identifying the data need of an organization is very crucial in keeping track of the relevant data that is required for evaluating customer’s satisfaction. This is achieved through use of information system to establish the organization data needs. The data is then automatically framed to provide the historical and current perspectives thus enabling the data managers to fully understand their key role in quality assurance through proper data collection, entering and analysis (Tiwana, Konsynski & Venkatraman, 2013, p. 10).

The role of information system in quality assurance spans from templates to testing in project planning and management to ensure quality product is delivered. It describes standardized model for quality assurance in product development and project work from the perspective of the team members and Quality Assurance personnel. The information system is used by various personnel in a company, who collectively ensures quality assurance. They include members of R&D, account managers and project steering boards. The project management needs to know that the software is built according to the plans and procedures it as defined. Personnel need to know that their work is of good quality and meets the standards (Tiwana, Konsynski & Venkatraman, 2013, p. 10). Users should get visibility quality assurance activities; so that they will be assured that the product will fit its purpose.

The software project management plan should declare the objectives of the project. This takes the form of statements of deliverables and delivery dates, statements of required functionality, performance and quality. The software experts examine the statement of objectives and check that all plans are consistent with them. The plan should state the phases and estimated cost of each phase, define life cycle approach to be applied in the project such as incremental delivery, waterfall or evolutionary (Mavengere, 2014, p. 112). A process model defines all the major activities. Each activity should define; entry criteria, inputs, tasks, outputs and exit criteria.

Information system plays a critical role in providing guidelines, testing methods and acceptance criteria for the project deliverables and creates a precise and a fruitful order that enhances better understanding of how the Quality Assurance function acting as a means of continuous improvement within an organization. It also covers the phases from certification plan to test cases, from certification sessions to sign off.

The templates and check lists contained in information system give detailed information on how to create the certification plan, test cases, test reports, building tests, running scenarios and tracking defects. It also supports the analysis of test data and coverage statistics, to provide a clear picture of the solution’s accuracy and quality at each point of its life cycle.The system also helps in carrying out projects as production-like repeatable processes where agreed standard methods are followed systematically in project quality planning, defect management and correction, as well as in maintenance and future upgrades. All this procedure has been made easy and possible through computerized system, where specialized software’s such as Neoxen, PMIs, PMBOK, PRINCE2, SEI, CMMI. Six Sigma and MSF have been developed to serve the purpose (Mavengere, 2014, p. 112).

The benefit of using information system in quality assurance is felt in dealing with initiatives of different sizes. The methodology presented in is used in feasibility study, change survey, specification and design projects as well as in implementation and deployment projects. The use of the system promotes systematization and repeatability and saves time in the long run. The use of the methodology of information system repeatedly will become easier and more professional. The high pressures to provide high quality solutions in time, shortening development and deployment schedules, geographically distributed organizations, limited resources and high number of professional employees make quality assurance the ultimate challenge. These challenges are coupled with coordinating simultaneous projects and managing diverse and distributed project teams.

To solve these challenges, the information system has adopted re-defined quality assurance methodologies and is committed to improving standardized and automated test processes to assist in centralizing, organizing, prioritizing and documenting the quality assurance efforts (Mavengere, 2014, p. 212).

The impact of Information system in quality assurance

In the current competitive business world, it is almost a commonplace to describe the current business environment setting as unstable in all its aspects as the completion has been augmented by the fact that most of the organizations have embraced the current technology (Mavengere, 2014, p. 112).

The organizations have always suffered from the changes of their customer’s tastes and preferences hence the need to embrace information systems in quality assurance to ensure that products manufactured and transferred to the markets including the services offered are of high quality and blend well with what the customers want. Therefore, organizations have integrated information systems in all processes of quality assurance in order to maintain the current clients and attract new customers. Most importantly, the use of computer software’s and hardware’s in management control, productivity and customer servicing has been the foundation for business survival (Babbie, 2008, p. 234). Organizations, which have incorporated Information systems (IS) in Quality Assurance (QA) endeavors, have been living in the safe side as pertains performance and building of customer loyalty.

Essentially, information system; that is a series of interconnected computing software’s and hardware’s have developed a renown reputation whereby they have led to standardized operations in all aspects of organizational performance. According to Boland (2011), to gain maximum benefit from an organizational information capacity, it widely understood that an interested individual should maximize on exploiting all its capacities. Inherently, Information systems in an organizational perspective rapidly process data from the inputs of the company to generate information that is useful for managing all the related activities. This enhances efficiency, reliability, speed and accuracy as (IS) blends significantly in the quality assurance process by ensuring automation in Quality Assurance as well as creating a well grasped understanding of the basics of quality production and delivery of services.

As defined in the introduction, information system refers to a collection of multiple pieces of equipment involved in the dissemination of information. For instance, they include; Hardware, software, computer system connections and information, information system users, and the system’s housing are all part of information system (Tiwana, Konsynski & Venkatraman, 2013, p. 176). Through the interconnected hardware and software systems and with the availability of information system users good organization and competence among diverse organizational departments is attained. Moreover, adoption of the basic and the most critical instrument in information system for quality assurance being the information system housing; (IS) housing

According to Mavengere (2014), in the present world Information systems in Quality Assurance (QA) is a fundamental requirement in all organizational activities. As Mavengere (2014) critically discusses it in his work, customers in the current competitive world are the backbone for any organizational success. Bearing in mind that quality assurance (QA), is the most important part of every company’s production processes and service deliver endeavors, it is significantly crucial for the management team together with the quality assurance team should value each and every individual contribution in enhancing the process. This essentially means that it should embrace any aspect of Information System that helps in monitoring the employees for quality purpose.
Inherently, Information System (IS) allows monitoring of the workers who are valuable part of any organization and ensures that continuous success is achieved through effective monitoring of the quality of services as well as the monitoring of the quality of goods offered (Boland, 2011, p. 123). Since in different organizations there are different employees with diverse titles, the process of monitoring their service delivery operations and their production capacities can only be achieved through the adoption of a quick and reliable quality assurance process.
The mentioned quick and reliable service can only be provided by the quality assurance departments only through the adoption and effective incorporation of Information System (IS) in the entire process (Briggs, 2014, p. 108More importantly, the processes in the verge of Information systems struggles to eliminate defects in the manufactured goods and the services offered and work hand in hand to improve the process control while at the same time reducing the quality control costs in the long run (Babbie, 2008, p. 234).

According to Cecez-Kecmanovic, Kautz & Abrahall (2014), another impact of Information system (IS) in quality assurance is the aspect of giving the management teams peace of mind and confidence in what the organization offers in terms of goods and services delivered. Through the adoption of Is in any organization, the quality assurance team is able to identify any problems in the company’s endeavor to satisfy its customers and triggers corrective mechanisms early enough hence preventing defects in the in the final products upholding the organizations reputation besides augmenting the chances of success, profoundly.

Essentially, early identification of problems in organizational process is critical important in that the final processes are protected from any ill-fated endeavor and the process is enhanced by the integration of software’s, hardware’s and other technological systems in the entire quality assurance process (Chemuturi, 2010, p. 23). In the event of the incorporation of Information System (IS) in quality assurance process within an organization, the departmental managers and directors develop a lot of confidence that the organizations quality management disciplines are being adhered hence assured of success and at the end significant business profits.

Information system is widely incorporated in different management aspects as a means to ensure effective and realistic quality assurance mechanisms. For instance, it is possible for the management teams to exercise authority in the process of exercising authority especially in quality assurance with the help of Information systems (Deng, & Chi, 2012, p. 317). Good managers in the quality assurance departments depend more on the use of Information Systems (IS) together with their authority to drive the quality assurance process towards achieving the organizational goals and objectives more than the authority they have For organizations to realize quality product and service delivery as a result of effective quality assurance endeavors, information System must be incorporated in the process.

More importantly, an Information system assists the quality assurance department in achieving the set objectives through providing a platform for setting automated and digitized goals that are demanding and attainable in the long run (Jackowski, 2006, p.231). This is accompanied by a continual monitoring, which is offered by the devices associated with Information System (IS) hence the early corrections are effected from the deviations realized. For this reason, Information systems assist high achievers to be more enthusiastic with regard to their tasks, a process that ends up spreading to others. Through the integration of Information System in the Quality assurance process it is quite true that any affected group within an organization is able to quickly regroup when setbacks do occur.

In each and every organization, there are conflicting demands that in most case require immediate response,, time and resources for their solutions to be found. According to Lowry (2013), information system plays a major role in assisting the workforce which steps to adopt first in an endeavor to deliver high quality goods and services that conform to the organizations requirements and the customer expectations (Jun & King, 2008, p. 310). As a matter of fact, Information systems assists quality assurance workforce in making the significant listing of the mechanisms to adopt in order to achieve the organizational principles, quick determination of the organizational task requirements as well as assisting in determining of the time to be used up in the different quality assurance processes. All this happens in an effective, immediate and reliable since Information systems are automated in every setting.

Additionally, Mastrogiacomo, Missonier & Bonazzi (2014), argue that Information System ensures that all the activities ranging from inventory taking, material management production and manufacturing to storage and marketing succeed. Through the systems organizations can plan, measure the actual departmental progress and take the necessary corrective measures in the event of deviations (Seidel, Recke & Brocke, 2013, p. 423). This means that Information system provides a basic platform for organizations to prepare automated target budgets, success criteria as well as conducting regular monitoring of the employee performance practices that promote delivery of high quality products and services that meet the institutional expectations as well as customer requirements.

In this case, information systems assist the management teams in managing their workforce, managing the customers, identifying the causes of any organizational problems as well as in determining the alternative approaches necessary in their journey to offer the quality (Jun & King, 2008, p. 310).
Research Approach

In this research, it is of importance to note and keep in mind that the researcher followed and open and easy to follow approach. For instance, an effective research provides the basic answers to the available research questions as well basing the entire research practices on validity, precision, impartiality and practicing economical approaches in the best way possible (Tiwana, Konsynski & Venkatraman, 2013, p. 67). As a matter of fact, the entire research adopted a qualitative and a descriptive survey structure approach. Most importantly, descriptive research tries to figure out what, when, where, and how observable facts, which the study is, concerned with answer the research questions and meet the research objectives.

The major function of the descriptive research is to characterize the state of affairs as it is in the present world by providing information on the phenomena under investigation; in this case information systems (IS) in Quality Assurance (QA).

In this study, descriptive research served a bigger push in providing a systematic description that is factual and valid in the best way possible hence prompting the collection of the necessary data in absence of impartiality. This technique was significantly important in that it allowed the researcher to describe what Information systems in the entire quality assurance process do. In addition, the process assisted in defining the major roles of the information system in quality assurance as well as describing how they are and where they are mostly used besides providing a well-structured ideology on the impacts of information systems in quality assurance.

Qualitative research approach is also adopted in the study since it assists in investigating the societal constructivist paradigm. In addition, the research greatly relied on the socially constructed realism of the corporate world and the corporate link with automated quality assurance process. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the approach is based on comparing different realms of data and investigating on different perceptions of diverse institutions based on organizational performance and the significant role played by information systems in enhancing quality of products and services offered. The methodology to be incorporated in the research will aim at determining the essential role that information systems play in ensuring that the organizations attains growth through offering quality goods and services.

The qualitative research strategy in this study promotes efficiency and simplicity whereby although there are no facts to be compared as part of quantitative research, the elementary make of the research is based on a reality that cannot be distorted.

Research philosophy

In the entire research, the philosophy to be incorporated in almost all aspects is deductive in nature whereby the reality is that Quality Assurance in the era of Information Systems has enhanced performance and working diversities as depicted by researchers and organizational management teams. In addition, reality proves that managers agree organizations perform quality assurance processes with the understanding that information systems strategy should be implemented following the bets procedure for the results to be the best. The argument will be based on the assumption that of the individuals who perceive that information system can and have the ability to profoundly augment Quality Assurance (QA) endeavors.

Target Population

According to Kothari (2011), a population refers to the total number of elements which are used to make inferences at the end of a study. In this case, the target population is different organizations which embrace Information systems in quality assurance and which act as points of reference for the whole study. Adoption of the target population in this case is of great importance as it allows the study to be more accurate and precise. However, throughout the study, secondary data acted as the major source of Information about information systems in quality assurance with regards to different target population.
Data collection methods

Primary research

The study was successful due to the fact that it embraced the use of questionnaires and interviews as the sources of primary data as well as the use books, journals and other relevant articles to study more about information systems in the dawn of quality assurance. The above stated methods were utilized in a broad spectrum by the researcher to collect significant information from different organizations to establish the role of information systems in quality assurance, identify in wide view the impacts of information systems in organizational quality assurance activities as well as exploring the link between quality assurance and information systems. Notably, the questionnaires were introduced in the study in order to address particular study questions and objectives.

The research used both close ended and open ended questionnaires, later they were distributed to the target respondents; that is different organizations for them to have a chance to fill them and ensure collection of required information. On the other hand, the interviews used in the study included both telephone and personal interviews to the top managers in the same organization because it was hard to find them physically.

The use of interviews for the purpose of primary data collection is supported by the fact that it helps to obtain first hand information from the participants, it is easy to conduct and does not consume much time (Newman, & Mcneil, 2008, p. 216). Data collection procedure used in this case is survey questionnaires, which will entail diverse participants including staff, customers and managers of different corporations that incorporate information systems in quality assurance. They were interviewed based on their views and perception regarding information systems in quality assurance and its effect to the performance and competitive advantage of the organization.

The clients in this case were required to establish whether organizations especially those that were in the top rank in using information systems in quality assurance ensure satisfaction of their needs and expectations. The research question for the study were developed and presented to different individuals in a manner that ensures participants can provide their views and perception regarding the topic of the study. Essentially, the use of questionnaire in the study was supported by the fact that they ensure comprehensive cross-examination of the participations and thus more reliable and adequate data. In addition, the use of questionnaires is incorporated in this particular study due to the fact that it is mainly associated with qualitative research approach (Schensul, L., Schensul & Lecompte, 2009, p. 54

Interviews

The researcher used interview with the aim to obtain detailed data regarding the research topic. With the help of interview as a primary data collection technique, the researcher had room to gain direct insights from the respondents and ensure the participant in the study in a more vigorous way (Babbie, 2008, p. 115). Besides the techniques facilitating in depth interviews, it was proven to be time consuming as several hours were used to interview one participant. The technique also has the drawback in that it has to ensure standardization due to varying answers (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, p. 101).

Questionnaires

A questionnaire can be defined as standardized set of questions that are used to collect data regarding a particular subject or phenomenon. According to Remenyi (2012), the use of questionnaire in this study is effective as it supports qualitative research whereby the researcher will be in a position to obtain simple measurements regarding a sample which can be later used to make inferences. This implies that the researcher used minimum financial resources as far as questionnaires are concerned. The use of questionnaires in this study were also supported by the fact indicated by Brace ( 2008), that questionnaires are simple to administer and analyze the data there in. finally, the questionnaires were seen more appropriate in the study due to the fact that they help to eliminate bias among the respondents (Gillham, 2007, p. 341).

Secondary research

Apart from primary data sources, the research used secondary research as an important source of significant information regarding the phenomenon being investigated. Secondary sources of data in this case included books, journals, internet and brochures. This method of data collection was adopted to investigate how information systems blend in the process of quality assurance in different organizational setting

Sample method and size

According to Wesselman, (2007), a sample refers to the portion of the population to be investigated. The notion of sample helps the researchers to study a section of the population and then make inferences for the whole population. Sampling in this case is essential to obtain diverse vies and perceptions of the respondents involved. The method of sampling used in this case is random sampling which aimed to ensure elimination of bias. A number of employee, managers and customers were involved in filling in the questionnaires while the rest were involved in giving their views regarding the incorporation of information systems in quality assurance, establishing the role and the impacts brought about by information systems in quality assurance.

How the study ensured reliability and validity

Essentially, a good research should ensure reliability and validity. Validity in this case seeks to ensure that the research questions formulated are rooted in the central focus of the study. On the other hand, reliability is based on generalization in that is the study is to be repeated and the same parameters used, similar results should be obtained or rather there should be aspects of consistency (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 34). Providing information out of ensured participants provided adequate, right and required information.

Relationship between research objectives, aim, questions and research methods

The study ensured that the research question, objectives and aim were linked to ensure a single alignment and investigation of the research topic. In this case, the study objectives are based on understanding the roles and the impacts of information systems in quality assurance which is based on the entire literature review. In the same way, the research objectives and research questions are linked with the literature review so as to focus on the aim of the study. Notably, the research methodology in this case has adopted a framework that ensures connection of between the research background and various data collection techniques.

Research ethics

The study addressed all issues related to research ethics to ensure reliability and acceptability of the results. The issues addressed in this case include but no limited to confidentiality and privacy of the respondents and clients. The study recognized the right to privacy of individuals and offered them first priority. To ensure the participants provide the right information, they were informing prior to the study that the research had academic purpose only. To address the aspect of ethics further, the study required the respondents to fill the consent form before participating in the study. In this case, signing the consent form by the respondents meant that they would provide appropriate information regarding the study topic out of will. More importantly, all issues related to ethics as laid down in the consent form were followed up to the last.

Results, Analysis and Discussion

Results

The study or rather the research presents the significance, the roles and the impacts of information system in quality assurance as well as exploring the link between quality assurance and information system. The data collection techniques aimed to explore and uncover the respondent’s perception and views in regard to the incorporation of information system in quality assurance in the widest view possible.

Data analysis and discussion

The researcher collected both primary and secondary data with the aim to investigate the topic of the study. The researcher in this case gathered data and organized them in a systematic way that allows easy analysis. To allow both qualitative and quantitative research, the researcher found it essential to collect both numeric and string data. Evidently, the data represented measurements and characteristics of different variables used in the investigation. The researcher first summarized and later described the data using expressive statistics.

The data was then edited carefully to ensure completeness, accuracy and elimination of errors that may be contained. Moreover, the researcher in this case aimed to guarantee meaningful results and inferences. The importance of explanatory statistics in this case was to allow the researcher to describe various variables used in the study to establish the aspects of information systems in quality assurance and the manner in which the process should be implemented and aligned with the diverse organizational perspectives. Later, the researcher presented the data inform of charts, table and graphs to ensure depiction of various characteristics of the variables used in the study.

Notably, the researcher used computer software to generate charts, tables and graphs. Collectively, the primary aim of analyzing the raw data was to establish the relationship that exists between information systems and quality assurance process. More importantly, the researcher used the results to make general conclusion on how information systems can impact on the performance of organizations especially in the quality assurance progression. In addition, Electronic survey questionnaires were used in the study to ensure easy accessibility of the respondents as they were from diverse regions.

The whole study targeted various participants including organization management team, sales persons and customers. The study targeted a sample population of 120 participants; however, only 90 responses were received indicating 75% response rate. The results indicate that 25% of the targeted customers did not respond to the questionnaires send to them. This percentage represents a total number of 30 individuals including different management teams. Survey questionnaires targeted customers from a broad occupation spectrum ranging from business and industrial.

More importantly, the results indicate that there are consistent levels of employee and management team satisfaction with aspects of improvements noted in both quarters. Evidently, all survey questionnaire questions were developed in such a way that ensures they provide enough and required information based on the research questions and objectives. In this case, the researcher developed the central pathway of the research against the outcomes, thus, occupation, reliability, employee and management analysis, responsiveness, capabilities, communication, services, and products among others. The results show that organization; particularly the ones that integrate information systems in quality assurance should target improving the link between the two from different departmental angles.

Most importantly, there is overall efficiency and organizational satisfaction in almost every organization with the use of information systems particularly due to introduction of information systems. In this case, the results show the importance of integrating information systems in quality assurance to ensure quality outputs, quality storage, effective inventory processes, material management and promoting quality in all processes of product production to ensure effective services to the customers. With respect to the aspect of alignment of the two processes, that is, information systems and quality control, the results indicate that effective alignment is imperative as it ensures the production and service delivery at large are given the chance for stakeholder and management satisfaction in every step.

In a broad spectrum, all the research findings reflect the already written literature review, research questions and the central objectives of the study. This helps to establish the role of information systems in quality assurance procedures in which the process should be implemented to ensure success of diverse organizations.
Demographic and occupation factors

With respect to the aspect of occupation and demographic factors, the survey was sent to customers, employee and managers from diverse organizations including business function and industrial sectors. In the case of industry sector, various customers and employees from sectors including non-business organizations among others provided their views and perception regarding the impacts of information systems integration in quality assurance of both the production and maintenance in an organizational perspective. Evidently, most of the organizations indicated that employees, managers and customers preferred the integration of information systems in the processes as they claimed that the efficiency and the speed of the same as depicted in the graphs below derived from the questionnaires and the interviews.

Figure 1: The above graph depicts the perceptions of the employees towards the integration of information systems in quality assurance within diverse organizational structures.

On the other hand, managers felt that information systems in quality assurance were expensive to embrace.

Similarly, customers from various sectors from who participated in the study were happy with the information systems as they enhanced production of quality products.

Conclusion

Evidently, Information systems are complex processes to implement but very important in organizational activities and it calls for an organization to use a well organized and systematic procedure to ensure realization of the process goals. The process requires an organization to develop training and development programs that seeks to ensure employees as well as their managers have the required skills and experiences to ensure customer services in better and effective manner through production and delivery of quality products and services.

The research above indicates the extent to information system is of significance to an organization Quality assurance performance and satisfaction of the customer’s needs as well as establishing how automation of the Quality assurance process as and the incorporation of Information System in the process creates quality production and quality delivery of services hence ensuring continuous growth of the process and the organization at large . In addition, the research enumerates the importance that accrues to organizations when they information systems in an effective and efficient manner.

With respect to the organization in question in this particular study, it is evident that diverse management teams have taken the aspects of information systems in quality assurance in different ways. For instance, the manner in which management team perceive about information system (IS) is not the same way stakeholders perceive the same process. Managers and their subordinates recognize the importance of integrating information systems (IS) in Quality assurance to production of quality deliverables.. This in turn will ensure that organizations marketing teams are well endowed to handle customer’s needs and expectations.

The whole research including results of data analysis and the literature review indicates how introduction of a information systems in the quality control and quality assurance process result to development of a new production culture which is different from the previous one. In addition, the concept of quality assurance process in organizations puts more emphases to the fact that the process must be implemented using the right procedure for an organization to realize the positive effects of the progression. Notably, various positive impacts of the process have been identified by the literature review together with the respondent involved in the study.

In this case, the sales process is associated with benefits but not limited to enhancing the responsiveness, capabilities, services, products, reliability, management performance and more importantly competitive advantage in the long- run. For an organization to thrive with the use of information systems especially in a competitive business environment, adoption of effective strategies is paramount. In a broad spectrum, Information system (IS) plays a crucial role in guaranteeing positive organizational performance in a given organization. In this case, developing mechanisms that aim to ensure proper incorporation of (IS) in Quality Assurance (QA) should be a central goal for a success driven organization.

The other important aspect deduced from this particular study is that effective alignment of information system in quality assurance is imperative. With respect to alignment of the two processes, it is evident from the research that organizations should ensure proper alignment between the two. In this case, sales persons should guarantee customer satisfaction in every step. Based on the literature review, it is paramount to address the needs and concern of the customers hence organizations should introduce Information system in determination of quality and in the quality assurance process at large.

However, the study indicates that organizations still address the needs and concerns of the customers in their own style. In other words, quality assurance staffs lack a common mean to approach the determination of eminence.
Information system has been identified to have the capacity to provide evidence and guide on what aspect works or not work within an organization in a quicker and in an efficient manner. Information system integration in quality assurance process also provides opportunities for different organizations in the business world to get involved with the customers through maintenance of quality. For instance, the process allows the quality assurance department to get into contact with the production teams for the better of their customers.

The research also indicates that effective assimilation of Information system (IS) in the quality assurance process gives the employees, the management and the customers a chance to deliver and obtain best services on time respectively. Essentially, relationship between an organization staff and the customers at all levels should be effective to ensure success within all business functions. The research indicates that the success of business is based on the loyalty of the customers that is build through a good reputation, trust and delivery of quality products or goods.

The customers in the same regard should ensure they provide the sales people with concerns and issues that hinder effective production and release of product so that the organization can strategize on the mechanisms to take in the quality assurance (QA) process through the use of information systems (IS). This is to ensure organization through the efforts of the Quality Assurance team provide the customers with the effective and convenient services through providing various options of value added initiatives and take consultative approach, moving away from features and benefits of the product or service and price driven conversations.

Recommendation

As pointed from the above research, it is evident that organizations should adopt and implement information systems in quality assurance process to enjoy wide range of benefits associated with effective implementation of the process. Notably, for realization of the benefits associated with information systems in the world of technological advancements within an organization, corporations should implement the process in the right and required or rather the ideal procedure. Organizations should embrace Information systems in all Quality Assurance processes by creating an automated platform that works towards achieving a continuous improvement in terms of quality production and quality service delivery.

In fact, the organizations require to realize that quality assurance process should integrate information systems and their related software and hardware components in an organized and systematic procedure and should be treated as such. Failure to implement the process in a systematic and organized manner, organizations will realize little or no change in quality enhancement. Essentially, the quality assurance teams in different organizations have the role to address the needs and concerns of the customers as they arise in every step or rather stage of customers loyalty. In this case, organizations should ensure effective alignment of quality assurance process with the aim to ensure effective addressing of customers needs and concerns.

With respect to the aspect of alignment, organizations should ensure that the information systems in quality assurance have the capacity to address the goals and the objectives of the quality assurance department. In addition, Organization should implement programs that seek to provide training and development in terms of information system development. As evident from the research, information system in the entire quality assurance process is all about ensuring a more effective organizational operations and more so in satisfaction of customers’ needs.

Organization should employ all kind of resources including technical, expertise and finances to ensure that the quality assurance teams are well endowed in terms of handling all operations. This is of great importance as finally it translates to enhanced performance and improved competitive advantage. Evidently, the quality assurance department plays a vital role in promoting organizational products and services to the market; this implies that they are often in touch with the sales department as they receive customer’s tastes for quicker translation into the desired goods. In this regard, improving the information systems would mean that they are able to learn the situation in the ground and advise the organization management or the people in charge accordingly. This further replicate to coming up with solutions and alternatives that best fit the situation of the ground.

Technological support for information systems can also be essential to the quality assurance executives and organizations at large as it provide a platform on which the institution can address the needs and concerns of the customers in a faster, convenient and more accessible way. Organizations can use technology to facilitate information systems as well as the entire quality assurance process in that it allows the organization to reach more customers and make the customers to know the kind of services and products provided. In simple terms, organization should adopt technology while implementing the quality assurance goals in the entire process within their organization to make the process more effective and efficient.

References

  • Babbie, E. R. (2008). The basics of social research. Belmont, CA, Thomson/Wadsworth
  • Blessing Mavengere, N 2014, ‘Role of Information Systems for Strategic Agility in Supply Chain Setting:
    Telecommunication Industry Study’, Electronic Journal Of Information Systems Evaluation, 17, 1, pp. 100-112.
  • Boland, R. J. (2011). Critical issues in information systems research. Chichester [u.a.], Wiley.
    BRACE, I. (2008). Questionnaire design: how to plan, structure and write survey material for effective market research. London, Kogan Page.
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