Grover Cleveland’s administration - Sample Essay
Grover Cleveland’s administration indirectly effects the election. During the Grover Cleveland’s administration, the public faced numerous problems and conflicts. At that time, the nation fall into a deep economic recession, which lasted the duration of his administration. Due to the following facts: 1. Most of the agricultural sector had been suffering since the 1880s, but in his administration, it experienced even lower crop prices. 2. In the dominant industrial sector that also hit severely which then causing over 20% unemployment which then reduced production and consumption.
At that time stock market had lost 35% of its value from early in the year, 4. During the entire year, almost 30% of the railroad system went bankrupt, 500 banks closed their doors, and 15,000 businesses failed. Cleveland’s Administration was only for wealthy financiers declared by republican Party. Also the president rejected direct economic relief as outside the constitutional authority of the federal government and then he did attempt to counteract the depression through monetary policy.
As he was faithful defender of the gold standard, and believed that, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 was causing a severe drain on the nation’s gold reserve. At his request, a special session of Congress (1893) repealed the legislation. However, since at that time the nation’s gold supply had already declined, then how gold standard supporters believed was a dangerously low level, President Cleveland directed Treasury Secretary John Carlisle on four occasions to sell U. S. bonds to New York bankers for gold. So this was opposed by his political opponent that his administration was only for wealthy financiers.
That really works on the nation’s thought He also attacked on the economic depression from the financial side by attempting to reduce the nation’s high tariffs. Then he worked with Congressman William Wilson of West Virginia, a Democrat, to introduce into the U. S. House a bill lowering tariff rates. After the House passed a slightly revised version, Senator Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland, a Democrat, and other senators radically altered the legislation into a high-tariff bill that only reduced the overall rate from 48% to 41%.
The president denounced the betrayal of genuine reform, but allowed the Wilson-Gorman Act to become law in 1894 without his signature. Coxey’s Army: The economic depression creates riots in Chicago, Cleveland, and Buffalo. In 1894, Jacob Coxey, an businessperson, organized a march of 500 unemployed laborers, known as Coxey’s Army, to Washington, D. C. , to demand a federal public works program. Coxey was arrested for illegal entry in the Capitol lawn, and his plan went unheeded. In June 1894, a strike started at the Pullman Palace Car Company in reaction of reduced wages and higher prices at company stores.
The strike spread to other railroad companies, interrupted the nation’s transportation system, and erupted into violence. At the request of railroad executives, but against the wishes of Governor John Atgeld of Illinois, President Cleveland secured an injunction against the strikers and sent federal troops to Illinois, thereby ensuring transit of the commerce and the U. S. mails and breaking the strike. Controversial decisions: In 1895, the U. S. Supreme Court issued three controversial decisions concerning the economy and labor-capital relations.
According to these decisions: 1. It nullified the recently passed income tax as unconstitutional; 2. ruled that the American Sugar Refining Company, which controlled 98% of sugar refineries in the United States, was not in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act; and refused to grant a writ of habeas corpus to Eugene Debs, 3. Eugene Debs was the president of the American Railway Union, who had been arrested for participating in the Pullman Strike. The latter decision had the effect of approving the use of court injunctions against strikers.
During his time in jail, Debs became a socialist and would later be the five-time presidential nominee of the Socialist Party. Cut off the Island chain: In administration of Cleveland, American business interests, with the assistance of a contingent of U. S. marines, maintain Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani and requested that the United States attach the island chain. The outgoing administration of Republican Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) had sent an annexation treaty to the U. S. Senate for ratification, but upon taking office, President Cleveland rescinded it.
Taking into consideration these problems, McKinley did some promises to the nation, which mainly favors the industry and business holders. Republican Party platforms: The Republicans Party assembled with their representatives in National Convention, appealing for the popular and historical justification of their claims Following declaration of facts and principles: For the first time since the civil war, the American people have witnessed the calamitous consequence of full and unrestricted Democratic control of the government.
It has been a record of unparalleled incapacity, dishonor and disaster. In administrative management it has ruthlessly sacrificed indispensable revenue, entailed an unceasing deficit, eked out ordinary current expenses with borrowed money, piled up the public debt by $262,000,000 in time of peace, forced an adverse balance of trade, kept a perpetual menace hanging over the redemption fund, pawned American credit to alien syndicates and reversed all the measures and results of successful Republican rule.
In the broad effect of its policy, it has precipitated panic, blighted industry and trade with prolonged depression, closed factories, reduced work and wages, halted enterprise and crippled American production, while stimulating foreign production for the American market. Every consideration of public safety and individual interest demands that the government shall be wrested from the hands of those who have shown themselves incapable of conducting it without disaster at home, dishonor abroad, and shall be restored to the party, which for thirty years administered it with unequaled success and prosperity.
In addition, in this connection, we heartily endorse the wisdom, patriotism and success of the administration of Benjamin Harrison. We renew and emphasize our allegiance to the policy of protection, as the bulwark of American industrial independence, and the foundation of American development and prosperity. This true American policy taxes foreign products and encourages home industry. It puts the burden of revenue on foreign goods; it secures the American market for the American producer.
It upholds the American standard of wages for the American workingman; it puts the factory by the side of the farm and makes the American farmer less dependent on foreign demand and price; it diffuses general thrift, and founds the strength of all on the strength of each. In its reasonable application it is just, fair and impartial, equally opposed to foreign control and domestic monopoly to sectional discrimination and individual favoritism.