Detailed analyse - Sample Essay
There are many different features to look at in dept within the transcript. The actually conversation can be split up into features such as non-fluency features, the etiquette of the conversation and vocabulary but these are not the only features to look at. Additionally other parts of the transcript that should be analysed are the context, values and attitudes. Speech is very different from writing, one way in which it differs is the fact that speech is supported by the physical setting in which it takes place, but in writing the context of a conversation has to actually be explained to the audience.
The physical setting in this transcript is a ‘buttie’ bar. This physical setting is very important as it has an effect on the language in the conversation. The speakers can see the objects they refer to so the full names of the objects do not have to be used. For example in the transcript one speaker states ‘I had ice cream there so I licked it off’. Here the speaker uses a deictic, the other speakers know what that speaker is talking about even though the speaker does not fully explain.
Also the context of speech is important to the speakers and listeners in the conversation as because of it the meanings and feelings within the conversation can be recognised easily even though they are not always explained. One speaker declares ‘Steph’s at it’, the other speakers comprehend what she says with out the speaker filling in the details. This can be described as ellipsis. There are a number of diverse attitudes and values in this transcript. It is obvious that the status of the speakers is a group of friends.
The main attitudes which are clearly conveyed in the transcript are the attitudes towards speakers in the group. Speaker ‘E’ is the speaker who talks mostly throughout the transcript but is the most dislike in the group. This is clearly interpretive through the conversation and could also be seen through physical gestures and expressions. The speaker who directs the conversation is ‘K’, it is conveyed through the conversation that she is popular and holds power within the group. The other two speakers ‘P’ and ‘N’ do not speak often, but it can still be seen that they dislike ‘E’.
‘E- Its too warm, I…. K- Where’s Stephanie today’ All the speakers in the transcript use a similar repertoire in this conversation due factors such as the statuses of the people the speakers are talking to. Also the setting affects the speakers’ repertoire and the purpose of what the speaker is using their language for. In this transcript the status of the speakers is a group of friends, the setting is a sandwich bar and the purpose is to telling a humorous story therefore making the speakers’ repertoire informal, chatty and relaxed.
Additionally the topics and channel of conversation may also affect the repertoire. The dialogue in the transcript does not always follow the conventional etiquette of conversation that the linguistic H. P Grace set out. The transcript has maxim of quantity and maxim of quality as its gives as mush information needed by the speakers to understand and more than one speaker gives evidence for the topics being spoken about.
The transcript lacks maxim of relation and maxim of manner as the conversation drifts between topics and the conversation is disorderly. ‘I’m dead tired. I can’t stand this weather… ‘ Through the transcript it is conveyed that the actual conversation included many phonologic qualities. Accent and dialect are suggested in the conversation frequently making it a casual and informal conversation, also prosodic features are suggested in the conversation.
Even though it is not seen it is obvious that paralinguistic features are used. ‘I had ice cream on there… ‘ This transcript holds the normal conventions of speech in both grammar and the vocabulary. Dissimilar to writing definite sentences are absent in the conversation. The speakers use lots of fillers and pause often, they speak in utterances creating a loose sentence structure. The noun groups are simple and there is a general use of contractions and assimilations in the conversation.